CSS ( Centre For Social Studies) Centre for Social Studies
An Autonomous Social Science Research Institute Supported by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Government of Gujarat (GoG)
New Research Projects Initiated During 2016-2017
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of Resettlement and Rehabiliation (R&R) of Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) Affected Families (PAF) of Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Maharashtra (MH) settled in Gujarat

CSS has been carrying out Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) studies of the Resettled and Rehabilitated (R&R) Project Affected Families (PAFs) since 1980. At the time of the beginning of the SSP, CSS had conducted a baseline study of 19 villages of Gujarat that went into reservoir submergence later on. During 1981 to 2014 (more than three decades), CSS has studied thousands of PAFs and has submitted a total of 58 reports to the Sardar Sarovar Punarvasvat Agency (SSPA). SSPA has resettled a total number of around 11,000 PAFs from Gujarat, Madhaya Pradesh and Maharashtra in 9 districts of Gujarat and has developed 236 resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) sites for PAFs. In continuation of this series of M&E studies, CSS further plans to study 76 PAFs from Gujarat (GJ), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Maharashtra (MH), settled in Gujarat. These 76 PAFs have been resettled in 14 blocks (taluka) of 5 districts (Narmada, Vadodara, Chota Udepur, Bharuch, Kheda and Tapi). The primary aim of the M&E studies is to closely review the progress of R&R in order to facilitate better implementation of the programme and ensure meeting of its desired objectives. A qualitative assessment of the R&R and identification of potential pitfalls in the implementation of the programme is an equally vital aspect of this exercise. Akash Acharya and Arjun Patel are carrying out the study.

New Research Projects Initiated During 2014-2015
Assessing Flood Induced Loss and Damage (L&D) in the Textile Industry of Surat.
Sponsor : The Rockefeller Foundation under its Asian Cities Climate Resilience Network (ACCERN) through TARU

Researcher : Akash Acharya

Indian cities, particularly the coastal cities, are susceptible to climate induced rapid as well as slow-onset disasters like cyclonic storms, floods, sea level rise, etc., and the existing urbanization challenges enhance their vulnerability. The notion of L&D in the context of climate change has gained momentum in the UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change) climate change arena in the recent years, particularly after Bali action plan in 2007 (UNFCCC, 2012). Due to limited literature on urban L&D, it is a challenging issue for the policy makers to enhance resilience capacity and thereby reduce the possible climate change related loss and damage in cities, especially when the Indian government is planning to develop “smart cities”. Surat is considered one of fastest growing cities of South Asia and is the hub for the textile and diamond industries. On the other hand, the city is highly susceptible to floods (at an interval of every 3-4 years), sea level rise, earthquake (seismic zone-III) and health epidemic. The study interviewed owners of 145 textile weaving units located within the distance of one kilometre from the river Tapi. Office bearers of various weaving associations were also interviewed to get an overview of the L&D situation. The collected data was recorded in MS-Excel and has been transferred to SPSS for further analysis. Currently, report writing is in progress and is expected to be completed by July 2015 (Consultancy).

Ongoing Research Projects (initiated before March 2014)

1. Capital, Labour and the City: Unorganised Sector and the Social fabric of Surat

Sponsor : ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers: Kiran Desai, Biswaroop Das, Vimal Trivedi, Akash Acharya and Sadan Jha

This study looks at the inter-relation of four crucial components: capital, labour, migration and the social relationship in the changing milieu of Surat. By examining the complex web of these forces, this research programme proposes to focus at three levels – (a) relationship of production in unorganised production units, (b) migrant workers and unorganised labour market and, (c) social and urban milieu of capital and labour in Surat. The project draws its relevance from the current context of liberalisation and its impact on sections of labour engaged in industrial activities, especially in the ‘unorganized’ sector of Surat. Placed within the changed context of neo-liberal policy since 1991, the study intends to address issues and questions confronted by labour and capital particularly in the unorganised or informal sector of the city. This study will look at the dynamics of capital and labour within an industrial setup and also aim to unfold the dynamics of relationship between such forces and the city of Surat. The wider aim is to understand the manner in which capital and labour intersect with the immediate physical and social milieu of the city. The study has begun in March 2013.

This study has following components. An abstract of each component of the study is presented below.


Capital, Labour and Social Groups: With Reference to Unorganised Industrial Sector of the City

Researchers : Kiran Desai and Vimal Trivedi

The three mainline industries of Surat; textile, diamond and embroidery provide employment to around 18 lakh workers. Migrants mainly coming from states such as Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra are found to be working in different kinds of units of textile industry. On the other hand the diamond industry is known for its peculiar industrial relations . The industry has predominant presence of Saurashtra Patels across both capital and labour. Recurrent cycle of recessions in both the premier industries of Surat during last two decades has resulted into establishment of Embroidery units mainly during the last decade. Saurashtra Patels appear to have invested more into this type of industrial production for the purpose of diversification. The component of labour in all the three industries offers interesting and relevant subject of research especially in order to have comprehensive understanding of labour scenario of unorganised sector industrial activities of Surat city.

The proposed research also plans to unearth as to how the capital, i.e. the owners of textile and diamond industries are coping with changing economic milieu and also would try to understand their emphatic presence in social-political spheres due to their economic rise, especially in the case of diamond industry. The data collection work is in progress and the field-work is expected to be completed by the end of June 2015.


The Social and Spatial entanglements of Capital, Labour and the City

Researcher : Sadan Jha

Located within the larger context of urban dynamics and their relationship with capital and labour in Surat, this study looks at the changing character of selected neighbourhoods, communities and market places deploying ethnographic method consisted of long conversations (formal as well as informal) with people who inhabit and work at such locations) and observations. In its core, this segment of the research aims to explore spatial dynamics of capital and labour, an aspect that has been often ignored in social science research in India. The nature of responses by communities having varied social and historical embeddedness in the city and the manner in which these communities negotiate with the urban growth ushered directly by capital and labour hope to reveal social spatial entanglements of capital, labour and the city. So far a good number of individuals from communities (including Gola, Ghanchi, Khatri, Mahyavanshi, Marwari and migrant communities from Maharashtra), neighbourhoods (like Golwad, Kharwarnagar, Begumpura, Varachha and Rander) and market places (including Chouta Bhagal, Textile markets, Iscon shopping mall and Rangila Park) have been explored. The report writing is in progress.


Health Issues of Migrant Workers in Textile and Diamond Sector in Surat

Researcher : Akash Acharya

According to ILO estimates more than 2 million people die due to work related diseases each year and this figure is more than 1 lakh in case of India. Far more people become victim of injury at worksite and suffer. Occupational health and safety are being given increasing importance in industrial houses for workers’ safety, productivity and welfare. Major focus of occupational health issues have remained on mining, construction etc. and so far not much literature is available on issues related to health hazard in textile and diamond industry. Surat is considered to be one of the fastest growing cities in Asia with its population touching almost 5 million by now. Industries like textile (powerloom, dying-printing, embroidery etc.) and diamond polishing units have remained major drivers of this growth and both these sectors have sizable migrant population. These industries still remain traditional, functioning mostly as small scale units (SSIs). The proposed project aims to explore health issues of textile and diamond workers from occupational health perspective, migration health perspective and urban health system perspective. In terms of fieldwork, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies (mixed methods) will be used to understand health issues of migrant workers. Initial exploration would involve talking with industry associations, NGOs working in these localities, few owners and migrant workers to get an idea about the ground level situation and develop study variables. Few case studies (particularly of ex-workers now out of the workforce for health reasons) will also be developed. Currently data collection is going on.


Urban Labour Market and Informal Jobs in Surat: A Study of the Lower Level Sales

Researcher : Biswaroop Das

As part of a larger study on Capital, Labor and City, this enquiry was aimed at understanding as to how vendors and hawkers engaged in 'lower level' sales in Indian cities locate themselves in the urban labour market, negotiate their work lives and transact business while facing a paradoxical situation of being accepted and yet viewed as a nuisance by sections of citizens as well as civic authorities. Taking the city of Surat as a case, the study is based on a detailed analysis of in-depth interviews of 206 vendors picked randomly from its different market places, footpaths and roadsides. The study identifies the pattern and extent of a wide range of vendors and their vending practices, their social and geographical origin, an overwhelming presence of rural migrants from economically depressed regions across trades, the manners in which they enter and remain or slip out from jobs, presence of wage labour in the otherwise obvious self employed sector in specific trades, their earnings and enterprises, working hours and lives, management practices adopted and problems faced by them. Essentially, a supply driven process, movement of rural migrants from different regions to cities and engaging with vending and allied jobs is sustained by a kith-kin-peer network link which also differentiates their engagement in specific trades along regional lines. The study also highlights as to how with the growth of surat and changing character of its central, immediate and farther peripheries, vendors have renegotiated their spaces, been pushed out, re-entered as well as rendered jobless. The monograph focuses on the intrinsic relationship between low scale capital and self employed vending within the context of the Indian "urban"landscape where nearly all such vendors remain in a perpetual state of misery, anxiety, lower returns and constant hardships. The report has been submitted.

2. Tribes in Gujarat: Interrogating Social Change and Development

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Dinesh Chaudhari, Satyakam Joshi and Akash Acharya

Gujarat has a sizable proportion of tribal population (14.8%, census 2011) which is almost double the national average (8.6%, census 2011). The tribal population of Gujarat is concentrated in the eastern hilly region and the forest belt from Banaskantha district in north to the Dangs district in south. Due to construction of various irrigation projects,a large number of tribals have been displaced from their native lands, forcing them to migrate to towns and cities in search of employment. The present study will review the legislative framework pertaining to the tribals by focusing on acts like Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA), Forest Rights Act (FRA) etc. and understanding issues associated with their implementation at the field level. Experiences of various tribal groups and agencies of the state in the process of implementing such legal frameworks will also be studied. The study will also focus on land alienation, displacement, livelihoods and migration patterns and their interconnectedness. The project also has a component aimed at understanding the status of health among tribals. Under this component, indigenous healing system of tribals will be studied and an attempt will be made to comprehend changes that have taken place over a period of time resulting in dilution, integration or replacement of indigenous healing system with the modern allopathic health care system. In 2004, government of Gujarat appointed Kwolghi committee to identify the most backward talukas of Gujarat. The committee used 44 development indicators to identify backward talukas and 19 tribals talukas were identified as most backward talukas. We plan to select one village from each of these most backward tribal talukas for an in-depth inquiry. In order to understand the ground realities and create a village profile, a baseline census study of all village households will be undertaken by including major components of sub-themes. The data collection is over for three villages and individual monographs are being prepared for these three villages. Other villages in central and north Gujarat will be sampled for the survey from June 2015 onwards. The duration of the project is 24 months.

3. A Study of Food Security of the Tribals in Gujarat

Sponsor : ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Gagan Bihari Sahu and Satyakam Joshi

Ensuring food security has been an issue of great importance in India. Despite being a country with substantial food grain production, we are still a nation with the highest number of malnourished children. Output indicators of food and nutrition seem to be very low for Scheduled tribes in India and particularly in Gujarat. Socio-economic indicators place them at the lowest end of development. Within this context, the present study will examine the extent, nature and dimensions of food insecurity at the household level in the tribal belt of Gujarat.

The specific objectives of the study are: (1) What programmes and policies India has followed in order to realize food and nutrition security? Mapping the coordination and contradictions between the state and central government, if any, during implementation of theseprogrammes. Are there any special provisions earmarked in the existing programmes to ensure food security in tribal region?; (2) To identify leakages and constraints created by interest groups in the process of distribution of food/food grains at local level; (3) To estimate the contribution of government ‘food security’ programmes towards the households; (4) Examine the efforts made by the households to bridge the gap, if any, in order to attain food security; and (5) To make an assessment of who does what in order to bridge the gap between ‘need and received’. Review of literature and tools of research are under progress.

4. Trends in Consumer Protection and Awareness with special reference to Insurance and Health Services: a Case Study of Surat City and Surrounding Rural Areas

Sponsor : Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA), New Delhi

Researchers : B. Devi Prasad and Vimal Trivedi

India is a fast growing economy and is emerging as one of the major hubs for potential consumer market. The economic reform in 1990s, the globalized economy, advancement of technology and the aggressive marketing strategy have not only added innumerable services but also opened up wide variety of choices to consumers. This situation, at the same time brought problems of quality and safety into the forefront. Market economy with its inherent profit motive in mass production and sales opens up scope to producers of these services to exploit customers. It also takes time for the transition to happen from the ‘sellers market’ to a ‘buyers market’. In fact, the level of awareness of consumer can be taken as an indicator of the progress of a country. Besides, the role of a regulatory authority to offset the deceptive practices in pricing, promotion and delivering low quality services is equally important. In Surat city and surrounding rural area, so far there exists no such study examining the consumers’ experiences, awareness levels and their responses. The aim of the study is to examine, from the consumer's perspective, the trends in the consumer protection and consumers’ awareness about their rights in the changing socio economic scenario of a fast growing city and surrounding rural areas. As a fast growing city with the presence of both public and private health services, the findings of the study will throw light on the behaviour and perceptions of urban and rural consumer as well as factors influencing their redressal seeking actions. Currently the report writing is in progress and the project is expected to be complete by August 2015.

5. An Exploration into Nutritional Status of Tribal Communities in Gujarat

Sponsor : ICSSR, New Delhi

Researcher: Gagan Bihari Sahu

Tribals are among of the most underprivileged and impoverished sections of the society. Several surveys point at poor nutritional status and low food consumption by them. However, these tend to see them as homogenous entity overlooking the cultural and material differences across various groups. The data thus conceal the situation of more marginalised within them. It also fails to capture the relative status of each tribe with respect to nutrition.

The proposed study, therefore, intends to investigate the nutritional status and vulnerability among tribal communities who are located differently on the ladder of socio-economic development. It intends to assess the nutritional status of four tribal communities namely Konkana, Gamit, Kotwalia and Kolgha belonging to major and primitive tribal groups. Assessment of their nutritional status will be made by anthropometric measurements while their food system will be investigated by collecting ethnographic details to understand the issues in food and nutrition.

The exploration is likely to bring insights on the access and availability of food to these communities. In addition, it would also create a database on their nutritional status that could be useful in making relevant policies. Data analysis is in progress.

6. Understanding Nutritional Status of Tribal Community with Special Focus on ICDS Services: A Study in Dediyapada Taluka (Gujarat) and of Kathkari Community in Malvan and Devgarh Talukas (Maharashtra)

Sponsor : Child Rights & You (CRY), Mumbai

Researcher: Gagan Bihari Sahu

Nutrition plays a vital role in the physical growth and mental development of individuals. It can be defined as a substance that must be consumed as part of a diet to provide a source of energy, material for growth or for energy production. Nutritional disorder during the crucial period of early childhood leads to growth retardation, which may cause residual effects letter. Malnutrition, in general, can result in reduced productivity, low recovery from illness and increased susceptibility to infections. A woman with poor nutritional status has a greater risk of obstructed labour, having a baby with a low birth weight and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes, producing lower quality breast milk and illness for herself and her baby.

While its importance in attaining the potentials of worthy life is well recognized, it is also an issue pertaining to the right to dignified living as enshrined in the constitution. To fulfil the obligations of nutrition towards children, in our country, an Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) has been introduced in 1975. This scheme has been instrumental in improving the health of mothers and children under the age of six years by providing health and nutrition education, health services, supplementary food and pre-school education and also special care is provided to the children identified as severely malnourished. The implementation of ICDS has passed more than three decades but still the nutritional status of the important segments is far behind the expected levels. Importantly, the level of malnutrition in case of tribal belts of the nation is exceptionally high. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to measure the level of malnutrition among children belonging to the tribal communities with special focus on ICDS beneficiaries. The study also explores the role of ICDS in improving the nutritional status in Dediyapada Taluka of Narmada District in Gujarat and in Malvan & Devgarh blocks of Sindhudurg district in Maharashtra.

Data for the study have been collected through canvassing of a structured questionnaire from 20 villages in Dediyapada Taluka and six villages in Malvan and Devgarh blocks of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra. Data analysis is in progress and the draft report for Maharashtra has been submitted and for the Gujarat it is under preparation.

7. A Sociological Study of Exodus of Dalits in Rural Gujarat

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Arjun Patel

The main objective of the study is to understand the nature of caste relations, particularly of the dalits and non-dalits in Gujarat with reference to the social structure and the changes that have taken place in the wider society in post 1960s. Various studies reveal that social relations among various castes in Gujarat remain no more harmonious. The incident of dalit conflicts in the state often appears in the local newspapers and periodicals. Gujarat stands fourth in India in terms of the number of such incidents occurring in a unit of one lakh population. The worrisome fact is that there are dozens of cases of Dalit exodus from rural Gujarat during the last three decades. Dalit exodus from villages like Bhilji-Aniyani, Valar, Mithapur, Neshda, Vaghad, Cher, Surval, Adval, Khatin, Papli, Dholera, Detroj, Balsiyali, Kalmodar, Ramparda, Kadipur, Bhojpur, Sondha, Shahpur, Ramodar, Dhanla, Bhadiyad, Kadi, Sandhida, Chavad, Sitapur, Pankhan is quite prominent among them.

The question of en-mass exodus of Dalits is very complex. There are complex questions that require in depth investigation: What led the dalits to take the extreme step for en-mass exodus from their original village, where they have been residing for generations together? What are the structural reasons of it? How the conditions of dalits and non-dalits have changed over the last 40 years or so? How these changes have affected their relations? What are the different forms of untouchability and discrimination of the dalits that are practiced in rural Gujarat? What kinds of problems dalits face during the process of exodus? What is the role played by the government bureaucracy, police, media, court etc. in such incidents? This study addresses these questions by analysing the data on the above issues collected from the villages mentioned above. Data has been collected through informal talk, FGD and by canvassing an interview schedule. Currently, the report writing is in progress.

8. Educational Status of Scheduled Castes in Gujarat: Attainments and Challenges

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Naresh Chauhan (Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad)

The present study focuses on five major aspects of the educational status among SC students as well as non-SC students. It covers educational institutions at all levels: primary school, middle school, high school, colleges as well as institutions offering professional courses . The study covers issues like a) access; b) drop-out and stagnation; c) performance; d) availability of facilities; and e) discrimination in and outside the class/institution affecting educational performance, etc. and non-professional degrees (arts, commerce, science, etc.) and vocational training institutions. The units of fieldwork include households as well as educational institutions in both rural and urban areas. The study covers both government as well as private educational institutions. The study mostly relies on quantitative data collected from the field. The study covers 1500 students and the same number of households. Data analysis and report writing is under progress. Draft report has been sent to ICSSR and the project director is revising the report as per the comments given.

9. Educational Status of Scheduled Tribes in Gujarat: Attainments and Challenges

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : : J.C. Patel (Professor, Department of Sociology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad)

The present study focuses on five major aspects of the educational status among ST students as well as non-ST students. It covers educational institutions at all levels: primary school, middle school, high school, colleges and institutes offering professional courses. The study covers issues like a) access; b) drop-out and stagnation; c) performance; d) availability of facilities; and e) discrimination in and outside the class/institution affecting educational performance, etc. and non-professional degrees (arts, commerce, science, etc.) and vocational training institutions. The units of fieldwork include households as well as educational institutions in both rural and urban areas. The study covers both government as well as private educational institutions. The study mostly relies on quantitative data collected from the field. The study covers 1500 students and the same number of households. Data analysis and report writing is under progress. Draft report has been sent to ICSSR and the project director is revising the report as per the comments given.

The above two projects are part of a national study commissioned by the ICSSR. Ghanshyam Shah is the national coordinator of the study. This is a restudy of the fifteen-state study entitled “Problems of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Students” that the ICSSR had commissioned in 1974-75. During that time too CSS was the nodal agency for the study and I.P. Desai was the convenor. The Centre has taken up a number of capacity building measures for the staff working at various levels in these projects.

Study of Industrial Training Institute Students of Surat District

Researchers : Dinesh Chaudhari

This study is a part of the sponsored project by the ICSSR titled “Educational Status of Schedule Tribe in Gujarat: Attainment and Challenges”. The study focuses on three Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) at different levels: one from the city area, one located at the town level and one from the rural area. The thrust of the study is to know the socio-economic condition and discrimination between upper cast student and SC/ST student. One ITI from each level (city, town and village) was selected for the study to understand the ground realities and discrimination faced by SC/ST students from the hands of teachers and upper class classmates as well as their family members. This data collection and analysis is over and the first draft of report is prepared.

10. Democracy, Civil Society and Governance

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Ghanshyam Shah

While economic inequality emerges as a stumbling block in the democratic functioning of a nation, changing its economic structure alone cannot deliver democracy fully. This is because it generates other kinds of inequalities in its political and socio-cultural spheres. The processes of cultural awakening, building an egalitarian society and democratic systems have to go hand in hand. There is an intrinsic onus on the democratic state, the civil society and elite to create the environment, the system and modus operandi of governance to develop capabilities of all the citizens and enable them to meaningfully participate in the decision making processes for common good.

In spite of the political system eroding social inequality to some extent and challenging the traditional ascribed authority at all levels, inequality has increased. Conflicts between haves and have-nots have continued with the incremental democratization of society. With the neo-liberal idea of the ‘end of ideology,’ further expansion of democratization has been vitiated. Democratic social transformation has reached an impasse.

The central questions of the present inquiry are as to what extent after six decades of Republic, India has moved in the direction of egalitarian social order? What has it attained, and what emerge as the stumbling blocks in the process? What role civil society plays in policy making and governance to empower people? Whether nature of governance in the last six decades have accelerated or hampered empowerment of people? With an all India perspective, the study will focus on Gujarat. A political economy approach will be adopted to analyze the empirical reality. Theoretical chapters have already been drafted and rest of the work is in progress.

11. Development, Deprivation and Discontent: A Case Study of the Dangs: 1947-2009

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : Satyakam Joshi

Following the colonial as well as the Indian government's forest policy, tribals have been increasingly denied their rights over the use of forest. When they resisted they were brutally suppressed by the state. The corrupt tribal political leadership has sidelined the core issues of ownership of land and natural resources.

Present study aims to capture these developments in Dangs district of Gujarat after Independence. It also attempts to understand the developmental processes in post-Independence Dangs with reference to the nature of politics that shaped the relationship of different stake holders and the natural habitat in the district. The study also aims at analyzing the influence of changing state policies on the emergence of new stakeholders at different points in time. Finally, the study seeks to document the development processes and people's perception of the issues of equity, social justice and ownership of natural resources in the context of these processes.

The field of research is the district of Dangs. This study is mainly descriptive and exploratory in nature. The key respondents in this study are various stakeholders who have contributed in the process of development. Study intends to hold 100 to 125 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Out of a total of 309 villages in Dangs, 5 villages have been visited for understanding people’s perceptions. The selection of the villages was done on criteria based on their socio-economic and cultural composition. Participant observation method has been used for collecting information. Apart from data gathered from stakeholders, this study heavily relies upon a wide range of secondary data. Report writing is in progress.

12. A Select Bibliography on Gujarat Society

Sponsor: ICSSR, New Delhi

Researchers : : Seema Shukla

For a scholar working on Gujarat, the need to find relevant research material and references becomes important mainly when one intends to focus his/her work on understanding various issues and layers of social, cultural and economic aspects of the state. Although, there are a number of university libraries and research libraries in Gujarat, identifying and locating information available in them is difficult and time consuming exercise.

In view of the above, the present study attempts to prepare a bibliography and an Union Catalogue of resources available in these libraries. An attempt has been made to collect relevant references through Books, chapters from edited books, articles in selected Journals, research reports etc., available in various libraries in the State. The main objective of this work is to facilitate researchers/readers, who want to locate works undertaken on Gujarat. Through a compilation of all the relevant information at one place, this document aims to help researchers in finding out as to where and in which form such information is available in various libraries in the state. Section on English language is complete and the work is under progress on Gujarati language section.